Books, papers and websites for more information

Additional resources about distance sampling

There is an vast amount of printed material about distance sampling. We did not describe all of it within this online course, but here we point to a few places to gain additional insight into the topics we have discussed during the course.




  • A website dedicated to all things distance sampling is Here you can read about software enhancements, workshop offerings and other tips and tricks. In particularly, we recommend a searchable bibliography of distance sampling related publications in the scientific literature.

Papers mentioned in specific lectures

  • Lecture 3 of Chapter 2 Point transect case studies
    • Buckland, S.T. 2006. Point-transect surveys for songbirds: robust methodologies. The Auk 123:345-357.
  • Lecture 1 of Chapter 5 Variance estimation of systematic surveys
    • Fewster, R.M., S.T. Buckland, K.P. Burnham, D.L. Borchers, P.E. Jupp, J.L. Laake and L. Thomas. 2009. Estimating the encounter rate in distance sampling. Biometrics 65:225-236.
  • Lecture 4 of Chapter 5 Covariates in detection function
    • Marques, T.A., L. Thomas, S.G. Fancy and S.T. Buckland. 2007. Improving estimates of bird density using multiple covariate distance sampling. The Auk 127:1229-1243.
  • Lecture 2 of Chapter 6 Use of multipliers
    • Buckland, S.T., R.W. Summers, D.L. Borchers and L. Thomas. 2006. Point transect sampling with traps or lures. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:377-384
    • Potts, J.M., S.T. Buckland, L. Thomas and A. Savage. 2012. Estimating abundance of cryptic but trappable animals using trapping point transects: a case study for Key Largo woodrats. Methods in Ecology and Evolution 3:695-703.

Example line transect application

The Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in India attempts to monitor the size of the tiger population. This also involves monitoring the size of the populations of tiger prey. A video prepared by the WCS available both on the Conservation India website and the WCS India website includes a description of line transect sampling of tiger prey in India.

Dialogue & Discussion